Pig is among the most populous large mammals in the world. It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide.Pigs are omnivores and can consume a wide range of food.There is a large market on pig feed production.
What Is Pig Feed ?
Pig feed are divided into 2 types ,first is raw feed which is not artificial feed.it’s mainly include following types. 1. Coarse feed: It refers dry grass ,stalk and agricultural by-product,which crude fiber content more than 18%. 2.Green feed: It refers fresh alfalfa,vegetable s ,which natural moisture content more than 60%. 3.Silage: It refers roughage ,which is the green feed was chopped and fermented. 4.Energy feed: It refers crude fiber content of less than 18% ,crude protein content less than 20%. 5.Protein feed:It refers crude fiber content of less than 18% , crude protein content of more than 20%. 6.Additives:It refers natural minerals,vitamin,antibiotics, antioxidants, etc. Second is compound feed ,it’s artificial feed.Along with the development of cultural technique and breeding technique,compound feed play an import role in modern pig farm.It can significantly reduce production costs, protein and phosphorous intake and excretion , and greenhouse gases emissions by increasing individual nutrient efficiency.we are here to talking about how to make artificial feed pellet.
Why Pig Feed Is Important ?
Pigs are known for their appetites, and they have a collection of favorite foods to match. However, just like humans, pigs need a complete, well-balanced diet in order to stay well and avoid unhealthy weight gain. The nutritional needs of pigs can be divided into six categories or classes. These are water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.Accurate formulation makes sure the diet meets the needs of the specific pig.
Each pig with different feed Requirements,to properly nourish the pig, we need to understand its nutritional idiosyncrasies, its physiology and nutrient requirements, and how it responds to feedstuff and additive combinations. We must also realise that feeding goes beyond diet formulation, because diets must be properly processed, transported, stored, and finally presented for consumption before their potential is realised.
Good feed is necessary for growth, body maintenance and the production of meat and milk. You can use locally feeds that are less expensive, but also can be made by your own animal feed pellet mill.
Making your own pig feed is far more cost-effective than buying expensive commercial brands from the local market. In fact, if you are only raising a small pig farm,a hundred dollars’ worth of homemade feed might be enough to last you a few months.
Making your own hog feed is not too difficult, as long as you know the proper ingredients and proportions to use. When you mix and formulate your own feed, you need know some information to help you produce high quality pig feed pellet .
How To Make Pig Feed ?
Grinding – The degree of fineness of ingredients for pigs is very important.The finer particle size will increase the surface available for enzymatic digestion resulting, thus, in better nutrient digestibility. In general, 1.3% improvement in feed efficiency should be expected for each 0.1mm reduction in particle size. For maize is about 0.6mm . For soybean meal, 0.6~0.9mm is much sufficient. Pelleting – Pelleting can improve nutrient ingestion and improved digestibility,which can improve growth rate and feed efficiency by about 10% in nursery pigs .Pellet quality is traditionally associated with (index >90%) durability. But durability doesn’t mean hard pellet,when pigs have trouble chewing their feed ,the performance can be depressed by as much as 10%-15%.
Pellet diameter also influence quality,according to research ,the piglets as young as 14-21 days old can easily cope with any pellet diameter ranging from 1 to 12 mm. Since wastage may be excessive in pellets larger than 3-4 mm, most commercial pig feed pellet have an average diameter of 2 mm.
6 Best Pig Feed Ingredients
Feeds should meet the animal’s needs for maintenance, growth and reproduction. Good pig feed pellet contains sufficient energy, protein, minerals and vitamins. Rice bran, broken rice, maize, soya-beans, cassava, vegetables and distillers’ residues are often used in pig feed in large size feed production factory.A combination of protein source, milk replacer, vitamins, amino acids and rich feed ingredients makes this complete feed the ideal feed for pigs.here are 6 best pig feed ingredients for your own pig feed making.
1.Cereal Maize, wheat, and sorghum constitute the major energy sources of most nursery diets around the world. Barley and oat groats , cassava ,cereal by-products are also an excellent energy source. One of the best grain sources to use on your pig feed is maize. It’s a nutritious, high-carb option that’ll fatten up your pigs and fill them with energy at the same time.
Cereal contain not only cooked cereals, which are known to benefit pig, but also high levels of sucrose (as much as 25 percent). Thus, using up to 30 percent cereal fines to replace cooked cereals and lactose has been shown to reduce feed cost and even improve animal performance.
2.Animal protein and plant proteins Fish meal is an excellent source of protein for young pigs, but high price and low availability frequently limit its use. Other major animal derived protein sources include dairy proteins, poultry meal, meat meal, and blood products (where permitted).
Common plant proteins include soybean meal, soybean protein (in early diets), wheat gluten, potato protein, peas, lupines, sunflower meal, faba beans, and lentils etc.Low-protein diets resulted in depressed average daily gain, poor feed efficiency and high production costs.
3.Molasses Molasses, from sugar beets or cane, is a common enough ingredient throughout most of the world, yet it is only rarely used in piglet diets beyond a mere 2-5 percent. However, molasses contains about 50 percent simple sugars in the form of sucrose, free glucose and free fructose, making molasses an attractive alternative for replacing lactose in diets for young pigs.
Research has demonstrated that piglets beyond the first week of their life can use sucrose without any problems.For large pig feeding,molasses added at high levels has been shown to increase feed intake, possibly due to better taste .
4. Sugar beet pulp This is a widely underestimated ingredient. It is not only a fair source of energy, but also a good source of functional fiber, acting to promote healthy gastrointestinal microflora establishment in the young pig. In addition, beet pulp has a high absorbing capacity, and as such, it can be used in diets that promote nutritional secretory diarrhea (non-pathogenic), instead of bentonite or purified absorbent fibers.
5.Grass or straw,leaves Alfalfa ,clover,green fodder etc. Although low in fibre, alfalfa is palatable to pigs as well as being easily digestible. It is the best nutritional package you can put into the rations you use to feed your livestock, dairy cattle, poultry or pigs. It also contains a blend of 47 nutritional elements, and provides one of nature’s most liberal balances of vitamins, minerals and amino acids.
Clover’s sodium content is around 0.05%. Crude protein levels in the dry matter are around 25%. Phosphorus is 0.3%, and dry matter digestibility is up to 75%. Leaves and stems are quite a good local protein resources for pigs.
Leaves contribute 20% of the dietary dry matter and 46% of the crude protein after cooking. It is also a rich source of calcium, phosphorus, iron, Vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin, which are important constituents of a pig’s diet.
6.Salt Grains and plants used in pig feed are low in sodium, so the farmer are advised to add a few cups of salt to their pig feeds. A growing-finishing pig needs about 0.25% more salt in their diets.